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Camden, New Jersey 08102
Phone: (856) 225-2718
nrccfi@camden.rutgers.edu

New & Notable

Welcome to Our New Site!

Welcome to the new National Resource Center on Children and Families of the Incarcerated at Rutgers University–Camden. The center, which began as the Federal Resource Center on Children of Prisoners in the 1990s, joined forces with the Family and Corrections Network in 2003 creating the oldest and largest organization to focus on justice involved families in the US. ... Read more ...

Life Beyond Bars: Children with an Incarcerated Parent. Fact Sheet # 7 from the University of Wisconsin

“Life Beyond Bars: Children with an Incarcerated Parent,’ prepared by intern Neil Damron and released in November 2014, examines the latest research findings concerning the effects of a parent’s incarceration on children.” Read Full Release

Tools for Assessing Attachment for Children of the Incarcerated Central Connecticut State University and NRCCFI Survey

How do you measure children’s attachment to an incarcerated parent? How do you use the information? We are conducting a brief survey that will help us to understand current practices and procedures used to implement attachment assessments in a variety of settings. It is an exploratory effort to gather data which can potentially inform best ... Read more ...

The Echoes of Incarceration Project partnered with Sesame Street to create a powerful new film about visiting incarcerated parents.

The Echoes of Incarceration Project collaborates with Sesame Street:Echoes of Incarceration – which trains youth with incarcerated parents in filmmaking and advocacy skills, partnered with Sesame Street to create a powerful new film about visiting. It was released this week on the social media site Upworthy.  View the video HERE: https://www.facebook.com/video.php?v=905053386202187&pnref=storyIt has had  over 800,000 views ... Read more ...

Tools for Assessing Attachment for Children of the Incarcerated

Central Connecticut State University and NRCCFI are conducting a brief survey that will look at current practices and procedures used to implement attachment assessments for children of incarcerated parents.

Los Angeles Summit Will Explore the Latest Developments Regarding the Impact of Toxic Stress and Trauma on Children and Families of the Incarcerated

A Summit to explore the latest developments regarding the impact of toxic stress and trauma on children and families of the incarcerated and interventions and responses that promote their well-being. Expert speakers will include caregivers, youth and family members, scholars, law enforcement officials, and child welfare administrators. Read More.

S.E.E.K. 2014 findings discussed at meetings in Michigan

Meetings were convened in Flint and Lansing, Michigan on November 21,2014 by the Michigan Public Health Institute to discuss emerging issues among children of incarcerated parents and to communicate results from the Michigan longitudinal study, Project S.E.E.K (Services to Enable and Empower Children of Incarcerated Parents) Carol Burton, coordinator of the original Project S.E.E.K. which ... Read more ...

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Home » Research & Review » Published Research » Explanatory Research

Explanatory Research

The studies listed in this section examine the relationship between parent involvement in the criminal justice system and other factors such as children’s risk exposure, children’s outcomes, or foster care placement. They often are an attempt to answer the question of whether some of the adverse experiences of children of incarcerated parents are due to their parents’ involvement with criminal authorities or, more simply, to problems that often co-occur with parents getting into trouble with legal authorities.

Explanatory Research – Selected Listings

  • Dallaire, D. H. (2007). Incarcerated mothers and fathers: A comparison of risks for children and families. Family Relations, 56, 440-453.
  • Ehrensaft, M., Khashu, A., Ross, T., & Wamsley, M. (2003). Patterns of criminal conviction and incarceration among mothers of children in foster care in New York City. New York: Vera Institute of Justice and New York City Administration for Children’s Services.
  • Farrington, D. P., Coid, J.W., & Murray, J. (2009). Family factors in the intergenerational transmission of offending. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 109-124.
  • Gjelsvik, A., Dumont, D., Nunn, A. ( 2013) Incarceration of a Household Member and Hispanic Health Disparities: Childhood Exposure and Adult Chronic Disease Risk Behaviors. Center for Disease Control: Preventing Chronic Disease, 10 (1-8).
  • Hayward, R. A., & DePanfilis, D. (2007). Foster children with an incarcerated parent: Predictors of reunification. Children and Youth Services Review, 29(1320-1334).
  • Haskins, A. (2014) Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement. Sociological Science 1: 141-158. 
  • Huebner, B. M., & Gustafson, R. (2007). The effect of maternal incarceration on adult offspring involvement in the criminal justice system. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 283-296.
  • Phillips, S. D. (2008). Parents’ involvement in the criminal justice system and children’s entry into foster care: Findings and implications from two studies. CW 360.
  • Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, H. R., Kramer, T. L., & Robbins, J. R. (2002). Parental incarceration among youth receiving mental health services. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(4), 385-399.
  • Phillips, S. D., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G. P., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2006). Disentangling the risks: Parent criminal justice involvement and children’s exposure to family risks. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(4), 677-702.
  • Poehlmann, J. (2005). Children’s family environments and intellectual outcomes during maternal incarceration. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67 (December), 1275-1285.
  • Ross, T., & Khashu, A. W. M. (2004). Hard data on hard times: An empirical analysis of maternal incarceration, foster care, and visitation. New York: Vera Institute of Justice and New York City Administration for Children’s Services.
  • Turney, Kristin (2014). Stress Proliferation across Generations? Examining the Relationship between Parental Incarceration and Childhood HealthJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2014(55), 302-302. 
  • Van De Rakt, M., Nieuwbeerta, P., & Apel, R. (2009). Association of criminal convictions between family members: Effects of siblings, fathers and mothers. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19.
  • Wakefield, S.& Wildeman C. (2014) Children of the Prison Boom: Mass Incarceration and the Future of American Inequality. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Explanatory Research – Extensive Listing

  • Bijleveld, C. C. J. H., & Farrington, D.P. (2009). The importance of studies of intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviour. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 77-79.
  • Bijleveld, C. C. J. H., & Wijkman, M. (2009). Intergenerational continuity in convictions: A five-generation study. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 142-155.
  • Dallaire, D. H. (2007). Incarcerated mothers and fathers: A comparison of risks for children and families. Family Relations, 56, 440-453.
  • Dannerbeck, A. M. (2005). Differences in parenting attributes, experiences, and behavior of delinquent youth with and without a parental history of incarceration. Youth Violence & Juvenile Justice, 3, 99-213.
  • Dube et al. (2003). Child abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Pediatrics, 111, 564-572.
  • Ehrensaft, M., Khashu, A., Ross, T., & Wamsley, M. (2003). Patterns of criminal conviction and incarceration among mothers of children in foster care in New York City. New York: Vera Institute of Justice and New York City Administration for Children’s Services.
  • Farrington, D. P., Coid, J.W., & Murray, J. (2009). Family factors in the intergenerational transmission of offending. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 109-124.
  • Farrington, D. P., Jolliffe, D., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Kalb, L. M. (2001). The concentration of offenders in families, and family criminality in the prediction of boys’ delinquency. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 579-596.
  • Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-258.
  • Glueck, S., & Glueck, E. (1950). Unraveling juvenile delinquency. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Guzder, J., Paris, J., Zelfowitz, P., & Feldman, R. (1999). Psychological risk factors for borderline pathology in school-age children. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 206-212.
  • Hagen, K. A., & Myers, B. J. (2003). The effect of secrecy and social support on behavioral problems in children of incarcerated women. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12, 229-242.
  • Hayward, R. A., & DePanfilis, D. (2007). Foster children with an incarcerated parent: Predictors of reunification. Children and Youth Services Review, 29(1320-1334).
  • Huebner, B. M., & Gustafson, R. (2007). The effect of maternal incarceration on adult offspring involvement in the criminal justice system. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 283-296.
  • Johnson, E. I., & Waldfogel, J. (2002). Children of incarcerated parents: Cumulative risk and children’s living arrangement. New York: Columbia University.
  • Johnson, E. I., & Waldfogel, J. (2008). Trends in parental incarceration and implications for child welfare. CW360.
  • Kampfner, C. J. (1995). Post-traumatic stress reactions of children of imprisoned mothers. In K. Gable & D. Johnston (Eds.), Children of Incarcerated Parents. NY: Lexington Books.
  • Keller, T. E., Catalono, R. F., Haggerty, K. P., & Fleming, C. G. (2002). Parent figure transition and delinquency and drug use among early adolescent children of substance abusers. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 28, 399-427.
  • Kinner, S. A., Alati, R., Najman, J. M., & Williams, G. M. (2007). Do parental arrest and imprisonment lead to child behavior problems and substance use? A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 48(11), 1148-1156.
  • Langbehn, D. R., & Cadoet, R. J. (2001). The adult antisocial syndrome with and without antecedent conduct disorder: Comparisons from an adoption study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 42, 272-282.
  • Lawrence-Wills, S. (2004). Incarcerated mothers’ reports of their daughters’ antisocial behavior, maternal supervision and mother-daughter relationship. Journal of Family Social Work, 8, 55-73.
  • Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). Female juvenile offenders: Defining an early-onset pathway for delinquency. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 13, 439-452.
  • Lewis, C. E., Garfinkel, I., & Gao, Q. (3007). Incarceration and unwed fathers in fragile families. Journal of Sociological and Social Welfare, 34, 77-94.
  • Loukas, A., Fitzgerald, H. E., Zucker, R. A., & von Eye, A. (2001). Parental alcoholism and co-occurring antisocial behavior: Prospective relationships to externalizing behavior problems in their young sons. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 91-106.
  • Mackintosh, V. H., Myers, B. J., & Kennon, S. S. (2006). Children of incarcerated mothers and their caregivers: Factors affecting the quality of their relationship. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(5), 581-596.
  • McCord, J., & McCord, W. (1958). The effects of parental role model of criminality. Journal of Social Issues, 14, 66-75.
  • Modecki, K. L., & Wilson, M. N. (2009). The associations between individual and family level characteristics and discipline styles in incarcerated African American fathers. Journal of Child and Family Studies.
  • Moses, M. C. (2006). Does parental incarceration increase a child’s risk for foster care placement? [Electronic Version]. National Institute of Justice Journal retrieved on November 9, 2006.
  • Murray, J., Janson, C., & Farrington, D. P. (2007). Crime in adult offspring of prisoners: A cross-national comparison of two longitudinal samples. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 133-149.
  • Murray, J., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Parental imprisonment: Effects on boys’ antisocial behaviour and delinquency through the life course. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1269-1278.
  • Murray, J., & Farrington, D. P. (2008). Parental imprisonment: Long-lasting effects on boys’ internalizing problems through the life course. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 279-290.
  • Phillips, S. D. (2008). Parents’ involvement in the criminal justice system and children’s entry into foster care: Findings and implications from two studies. CW 360.
  • Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, H. R., & Barth, R. P. (2004). Parental arrest and children in child welfare services agencies. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2, 174-186.
  • Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, H. R., Kramer, T. L., & Robbins, J. R. (2002). Parental incarceration among youth receiving mental health services. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(4), 385-399.
  • Phillips, S. D., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G. P., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2006). Disentangling the risks: Parent criminal justice involvement and children’s exposure to family risks. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(4), 677-702.
  • Phillips, S. D., Leathers, S. J., & Erkanli, A. (2009). Children of probationers in the child welfare system. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 18, 183-191.
  • Poehlmann, J. (2005). Children’s family environments and intellectual outcomes during maternal incarceration. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67 (December), 1275-1285.
  • Poehlmann, J. (2005). Incarcerated mothers’ contact with children, perceived family relationships, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 350-357.
  • Robins, L. N. (1978). Sturdy childhood predictors of adult antisocial behaviour: replications from longitudinal studies. Psychological Medicine, 8, 611-622.
  • Rodriguez, N., Smith, H., & Zata, M. (2009). “Youth is enmeshed in a highly dysfunctional family system” Exploring the relationship among dysfunctional families, parental incarceration and juvenile court decision making. Criminology, 47, 177.
  • Ross, T., & Khashu, A. W. M. (2004). Hard data on hard times: An empirical analysis of maternal incarceration, foster care, and visitation. New York: Vera Institute of Justice and New York City Administration for Children’s Services.
  • Sirpa, S. K. (2002). Familial criminality, familial drug use, and gang membership: Youth criminality, drug use, and gang membership: What are the connections? Journal of Gang Research, 9, 11-22.
  • Stanton, A. M. (1980). When mothers go to jail. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
  • Swann, C. A., & Sheran Sylvester, M. (2006). The foster care crisis: What caused caseloads to grow? Demography, 43, 309-335.
  • Thornberry, T. P., Freeman-Gallant, A., & Lovegrove, P.J. (2009). Intergenerational linkages in antisocial behaviour. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 80-93.
  • Van De Rakt, M., Nieuwbeerta, P., & Apel, R. (2009). Association of criminal convictions between family members: Effects of siblings, fathers and mothers. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 94-108.
  • Wilbur, M. B., Marani, J. E., Appugliese, D., Woods, R., Siegel, J. A., Cabral, H. J., & Frank, D. A. (2007). Socioemotional effects of fathers’ incarceration on low-income, urban, school-aged children. Pediatrics, 120, 678-685.

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