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Phone: (856) 225-2718
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New & Notable

Welcome to Our New Site!

Welcome to the new National Resource Center on Children and Families of the Incarcerated at Rutgers University–Camden. The center, which began as the Federal Resource Center on Children of Prisoners in the 1990s, joined forces with the Family and Corrections Network in 2003 creating the oldest and largest organization to focus on justice involved families in the US. ... Read more ...

This week, The National Institute of Corrections Published a New Guide on video visiting authored by The Osborne Association.

The document “Video Visiting in Corrections: Benefits, Limitations, and Implementation Considerations.” The purpose of the NIC guide is to inform the development of video visiting programs within correctional settings. The authors examine this important national trend from a variety of perspectives including the needs of children and families of the incarcerated.

S.E.E.K. 2014 findings discussed at meetings in Michigan. Executive Summary released.

Meetings were convened in Flint and Lansing, Michigan on November 21,2014 by the Michigan Public Health Institute to discuss emerging issues among children of incarcerated parents and to communicate results from the Michigan longitudinal study, Project S.E.E.K (Services to Enable and Empower Children of Incarcerated Parents) Carol Burton, coordinator of the original Project S.E.E.K. which ... Read more ...

Life Beyond Bars: Children with an Incarcerated Parent. Fact Sheet # 7 from the University of Wisconsin

“Life Beyond Bars: Children with an Incarcerated Parent,’ prepared by intern Neil Damron and released in November 2014, examines the latest research findings concerning the effects of a parent’s incarceration on children.” Read Full Release

Tools for Assessing Attachment for Children of the Incarcerated Central Connecticut State University and NRCCFI Survey

How do you measure children’s attachment to an incarcerated parent? How do you use the information? We are conducting a brief survey that will help us to understand current practices and procedures used to implement attachment assessments in a variety of settings. It is an exploratory effort to gather data which can potentially inform best ... Read more ...

The Echoes of Incarceration Project partnered with Sesame Street to create a powerful new film about visiting incarcerated parents.

The Echoes of Incarceration Project collaborates with Sesame Street:Echoes of Incarceration – which trains youth with incarcerated parents in filmmaking and advocacy skills, partnered with Sesame Street to create a powerful new film about visiting. It was released this week on the social media site Upworthy.  View the video HERE: https://www.facebook.com/video.php?v=905053386202187&pnref=storyIt has had  over 800,000 views ... Read more ...

Tools for Assessing Attachment for Children of the Incarcerated

Central Connecticut State University and NRCCFI are conducting a brief survey that will look at current practices and procedures used to implement attachment assessments for children of incarcerated parents.

Read all News >>
Home » Research & Review » Published Research » Explanatory Research

Explanatory Research

Children

  • Bijleveld, C. C. J. H., & Farrington, D.P. (2009). The importance of studies of intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviour. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 77-79.
  • Bijleveld, C. C. J. H., & Wijkman, M. (2009). Intergenerational continuity in convictions: A five-generation study.Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 142-155.
  • Cho, R.M. (2009). The impact of maternal imprisonment on children’s probability of grade retention: Results from Chicago public schools. Journal of Urban Economics, 65, 11-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jue.2008.09.004
  • Dallaire, D., (2007a) Children with incarcerated mothers: Developmental outcomes, special challenges and recommendations. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 15-24. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2006.10.003
  • Dallaire, D.H., & Wilson, L. (2010). The impact of exposure to parental criminal activity, arrest, and sentencing on children’s academic competence and externalizing behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 404-418 doi:: 10.1007/s10826-009-9311-9
  • Dannerbeck, A. M. (2005). Differences in parenting attributes, experiences, and behavior of delinquent youth with and without a parental history of incarceration. Youth Violence & Juvenile Justice,3, 99-213.
  • Dube et al. (2003). Child abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Pediatrics, 111, 564-572.
  • Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-258.
  • Fritsch, T. A., & Burkhead, J. D. (1982). Behavioral reactions of children to parental absence due to imprisonment.Family Relations, 30, 83-88.
  • Glueck, S., & Glueck, E. (1950). Unraveling juvenile delinquency. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Guzder, J., Paris, J., Zelfowitz, P., & Feldman, R. (1999). Psychological risk factors for borderline pathology in school-age children. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 206-212.
  • Guzder, J., Paris, J., Zelfowitz, P., & Feldman, R. (1999). Psychological risk factors for borderline pathology in school-age children. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 206-212.
  • Hagen, K. A., & Myers, B. J. (2003). The effect of secrecy and social support on behavioral problems in children of incarcerated women. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12, 229-242.
  • Hanlon, T.E., Blatchley, R.J., Bennett-Sears, T., O’Grady, K. E., & Callaman, J. M. (2005). Vulnerability of children of incarcerated addict mothers: Implications for preventive intervention. Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 67-84. doi: 101037/0002-9432.75.2.211
  • Hanlon, T.E., Carswell, S. B., & Rose, M. (2007). Research on the caretaking of children of incarcerated parents: Findings ant their service delivery implications. Children and Youth Services Review, 29, 348-362. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2006.09.001
  • Johnson, Rucker C. 2009. “Ever-Increasing Levels of Parental Incarceration: The Consequences for Children.” Pp. 177-206 in Do Prisons Make Us Safer? The Benefits and Costs of the Prison Boom, edited by Steven Raphael and Michael A. Stoll. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Johnson, E. I., & Waldfogel, J. (2002). Children of incarcerated parents: Cumulative risk and children’s living arrangement. New York: Columbia University.
  • Johnson, E. I., & Easterling, B. (2012). Understanding unique effects of parental incarceration on children: Challenges, progress, and recommendations.Journal of Marriage and Family,74(2), 342-356.
  • Kampfner, C. J. (1995). Post-traumatic stress reactions of children of imprisoned mothers. In K. Gable & D. Johnston (Eds.), Children of Incarcerated Parents. NY: Lexington Books.
  • Keller, T. E., Catalono, R. F., Haggerty, K. P., & Fleming, C. G. (2002). Parent figure transition and delinquency and drug use among early adolescent children of substance abusers. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 28, 399-427.
  • Kinner, S. A., Alati, R., Najman, J. M., & Williams, G. M. (2007). Do parental arrest and imprisonment lead to child behavior problems and substance use? A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 48(11), 1148-1156.
  • Langbehn, D. R., & Cadoet, R. J. (2001). The adult antisocial syndrome with and without antecedent conduct disorder: Comparisons from an adoption study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 42, 272-282.
  • Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). Female juvenile offenders: Defining an early-onset pathway for delinquency. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 13, 439-452.
  • Lee, H., Porter, L. C., & Comfort, M. (2014). Consequences of Family Member Incarceration Impacts on Civic Participation and Perceptions of the Legitimacy and Fairness of Government.The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science651(1), 44-73.
  • Loper, A. B., & Clarke, C. N. (2013). IV. ATTACHMENT REPRESENTATIONS OF IMPRISONED MOTHERS AS RELATED TO CHILD CONTACT AND THE CAREGIVING ALLIANCE: THE MODERATING EFFECT OF CHILDREN’S PLACEMENT WITH MATERNAL GRANDMOTHERS.Monographs Of The Society For Research In Child Development78(3), 41-56. doi:10.1111/mono.12020
  • Mackintosh, V. H., Myers, B. J., & Kennon, S. S. (2006). Children of incarcerated mothers and their caregivers: Factors affecting the quality of their relationship. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(5), 581-596.
  • Murray, J. (2010). Longitudinal research on the effects of parental incarceration on children. In J. M. Eddy & J. Poehlmann (Eds.), Children of incarcerated parents: A handbook for researchers and practitioners (pp. 55-74). Washington DC: Urban Institute Press.
  • Murray, J., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Parental imprisonment: Effects on boys’ antisocial behaviour and delinquency through the life course. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1269-1278.
  • Murray, J., Janson, C., & Farrington, D. P. (2007). Crime in adult offspring of prisoners: A cross-national comparison of two longitudinal samples. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 133-149.
  • Murray, J., & Farrington, D. P. (2008). Parental imprisonment: Long-lasting effects on boys’ internalizing problems through the life course. Development and Psychopathology,20, 279-290.
  • Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, H. R., Kramer, T. L., & Robbins, J. R. (2002). Parental incarceration among youth receiving mental health services. Journal of Child and Family Studies,11(4), 385-399.
  • Phillips, S. D., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G. P., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2006). Disentangling the risks: Parent criminal justice involvement and children’s exposure to family risks. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(4), 677-702.
  • Poehlmann, J., Dallaire, D., Loper, A. B., & Shear, L. D. (2010). Children’s contact with their incarcerated parents: Research findings and recommendations.American Psychologist65(6), 575-598. doi:10.1037/a0020279
  • Robins, L. N. (1978). Sturdy childhood predictors of adult antisocial behaviour: replications from longitudinal studies. Psychological Medicine, 8, 611-622.
  • Rodriguez, N., Smith, H., & Zata, M. (2009). “Youth is enmeshed in a highly dysfunctional family system” Exploring the relationship among dysfunctional families, parental incarceration and juvenile court decision making. Criminology, 47, 177.
  • Roettger, Michael E., and Jason D. Boardman. 2012. Parental Incarceration and Gender-based Risks for Increased Body Mass Index: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 175: 636-644.
  • Shortt, J. W., Eddy, J. M., Sheeber, L., & Davis, B. (2014). Project home: A pilot evaluation of an emotion-focused intervention for mothers reuniting with children after prison.Psychological Services11(1), 1-9. doi:10.1037/a0034323
  • Thornberry, T. P., Freeman-Gallant, A., & Lovegrove, P.J. (2009). Intergenerational linkages in antisocial behaviour. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 80-93.
  • Turney, Kristin. (2014). Stress Proliferation across Generations? Examining the Relationship between Parental Incarceration and Childhood Health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2014 55: 302, DOI: 10.1177/0022146514544173
  • Turney, Kristin. Forthcoming. “The Intergenerational Consequences of Mass Incarceration: Implications for Children’s Co-residence and Contact with Grandparents.” Social Forces.
  • Wakefield, S.& Wildeman C. (2014) Children of the Prison Boom: Mass Incarceration and the Future of American Inequality. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Wakefield, Sara and Christopher Wildeman. 2011. “Mass Imprisonment and Racial Disparities in Childhood Behavioral Problems.” Criminology & Public Policy 10:793-817.
  • Wildeman, C. (2014). Parental incarceration, child homelessness, and the invisible consequences of mass imprisonment.The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science651(1), 74-96.

Families

  • Aaron, L., & Dallaire, D.H. (2010). Parental incarceration and multiple risk experiences: Effects on family processes and children’s delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolesence, 39, 1471-1484. Doi: 10.1007/s10964-009-9458-0
  • Aaron, L., & Dallaire, D. H. (2010). Parental incarceration and multiple risk experiences: Effects on family dynamics and children’s delinquency.Journal of youth and adolescence39(12), 1471-1484.
  • Arditti, J.A., Lambert-Shute, J., & Joest, K. (2003) Saturday morning at the jail: Implications of incarceration for families and children. Family Relations, 52, 195-204
  • Arditti, J. A. (2012). Parental incarceration and the family: Psychological and social effects of imprisonment on children, parents, and caregivers. New York: New York University Press.
  • Dallaire, D. H. (2007). Incarcerated mothers and fathers: A comparison of risks for children and families. Family Relations, 56, 440-453.
  • Farrington, D. P., Coid, J.W., & Murray, J. (2009). Family factors in the intergenerational transmission of offending. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 109-124.
  • Farrington, D. P., Jolliffe, D., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Kalb, L. M. (2001). The concentration of offenders in families, and family criminality in the prediction of boys’ delinquency. Journal of Adolescence,24, 579-596.
  • Folk, J. B., Nichols, E. B., Dallaire, D. H., & Loper, A. B. (2012). Evaluating the Content and Reception of Messages From Incarcerated Parents to Their Children.American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry (Wiley-Blackwell)82(4), 529. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01179.x
  • Foster, Holly, and John Hagan. 2013. “Maternal and Paternal Imprisonment in the Stress Process.” Social Science Research 42:650-669.
  • Foster, Holly and John Hagan. 2009. “The Mass Incarceration of Parents in America: Issues of Race/Ethnicity, Collateral Damage to Children, and Prisoner Reentry.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 623:179-194.
  • Gjelsvik, A., Dumont, D., Nunn, A. ( 2013) Incarceration of a Household Member and Hispanic Health Disparities: Childhood Exposure and Adult Chronic Disease Risk Behaviors. Center for Disease Control: Preventing Chronic Disease, 10 (1-8).
  • Kinner, S. A., Alati, R., Najman, J. M., & Williams, G. M. (2007). Do parental arrest and imprisonment lead to child behavior problems and substance use? A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 48(11), 1148-1156.
  • LaVigne, N. G., Naser, R. L., Brooks, L. E., & Castro, J. L. (2005).Examining the effect of incarceration and inprison family contact on prisoners’ family relationships. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 21, 314 –355. doi:10.1177/104398620528172
  • Lee, Rosalyn D., Xiangming Fang, and Feijin Luo. 2013. The Impact of Parental Incarceration on the Physical and Mental Health of Young Adults. Pediatrics 131:e1188-e1195.
  • Lopoo, Leonard M., and Bruce Western. 2005. “Incarceration and the Formation and Stability of Marital Unions.” Journal of Marriage and Family 67:721-734.
  • Loukas, A., Fitzgerald, H. E., Zucker, R. A., & von Eye, A. (2001). Parental alcoholism and co-occurring antisocial behavior: Prospective relationships to externalizing behavior problems in their young sons. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 91-106.
  • McCord, J., & McCord, W. (1958). The effects of parental role model of criminality. Journal of Social Issues, 14, 66-75.
  • Modecki, K. L., & Wilson, M. N. (2009). The associations between individual and family level characteristics and discipline styles in incarcerated African American fathers. Journal of Child and Family Studies.
  • Phillips, S. D. (2008). Parents’ involvement in the criminal justice system and children’s entry into foster care: Findings and implications from two studies. CW 360.
  • Phillips, S. D., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G. P., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2006). Disentangling the risks: Parent criminal justice involvement and children’s exposure to family risks. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(4), 677-702.
  • Roxburgh, S., & Fitch, C. (2014). Parental Status, Child Contact, and Well-Being among Incarcerated Men and Women. Journal of Family Issues, 35(10), 1934. doi: 10.117/0192513×13498593
  • Schneller, D. P. (1975). Prisoners’ families: A study of some social and psychological effects of incarceration on the families of Negro prisoners. Criminology, 12, 402-412.
  • Sirpa, S. K. (2002). Familial criminality, familial drug use, and gang membership: Youth criminality, drug use, and gang membership: What are the connections? Journal of Gang Research,9, 11-22.
  • Turney, Kristin (2014). Stress Proliferation across Generations? Examining the Relationship between Parental Incarceration and Childhood HealthJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2014(55), 302-302. 
  • Turney, Kristin. 2014. “The Consequences of Paternal Incarceration for Maternal Neglect and Harsh Parenting.” Social Forces 92:1607-1636.
  • Van De Rakt, M., Nieuwbeerta, P., & Apel, R. (2009). Association of criminal convictions between family members: Effects of siblings, fathers and mothers. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19.

Mothers

  • Bryne, M.W. (2010). Interventions: within prison nurseries. In J. M. Eddy & J. Poehlmann (Eds.), Children of incarcerated parents: A handbook for researchers and practitioners (pp. 161-188). Washington DC: Urban Institute Press.
  • Carlson, J. R. (1998). Evaluating the effectiveness of a live-in nursery within a women’s prison. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 27, 73–85. doi:10.1300/J076v27n01_06
  • Cho, Rosa M. 2009b. “The Impact of Maternal Incarceration on Children’s Educational Achievement: Results from Chicago Public Schools.” Journal of Human Resources 44:772-797.
  • Hagen, K. A., & Myers, B. J. (2003). The effect of secrecy and social support on behavioral problems in children of incarcerated women. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12, 229-242.
  • Hagan, John, and Holly Foster. 2012a. “Children of the American Prison Generation: Student and School Spillover Effects of Incarcerating Mothers.” Law and Society Review 46:37-69.
  • Houck, K. D. F., & Loper, A. B. (2002). The relationship of parentingstress to adjustment among mothers in prison. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 548 –558. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.72.4.548
  • Huebner, B. M., & Gustafson, R. (2007). The effect of maternal incarceration on adult offspring involvement in the criminal justice system. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 283-296.
  • Kampfner, C. J. (1995). Post-traumatic stress reactions of children of imprisoned mothers. In K. Gable & D. Johnston (Eds.), Children of Incarcerated Parents. NY: Lexington Books.
  • Lawrence-Wills, S. (2004). Incarcerated mothers’ reports of their daughters’ antisocial behavior, maternal supervision and mother-daughter relationship. Journal of Family Social Work, 8, 55-73.
  • Mackintosh, V. H., Myers, B. J., & Kennon, S. S. (2006). Children of incarcerated mothers and their caregivers: Factors affecting the quality of their relationship. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(5), 581-596.
  • Poehlmann, J. (2005). Children’s family environments and intellectual outcomes during maternal incarceration.Journal of Marriage and Family, 67 (December), 1275-1285.
  • Poehlmann, J. (2005). Incarcerated mothers’ contact with children, perceived family relationships, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 350-357.
  • Stanton, A. M. (1980). When mothers go to jail. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
  • Turney, Kristin, and Christopher Wildeman.Forthcoming.“Detrimental for Some? The Heterogeneous Effects of Maternal Incarceration on Child Wellbeing.”Criminology and Public Policy.

Fathers

  • Craigie, Terry-Ann. 2011. “The Effect of Paternal Incarceration on Early Child Behavioral Problems: A Racial Comparison.” Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice 9:179199.
  • Geller, Amanda, Carey E. Cooper, Irwin Garfinkel, Ofira Schwartz-Soicher, and Ronald B. Mincy. 2012. “Beyond Absenteeism: Father Incarceration and its Effects on Children’s Development.” Demography 49:49-76.
  • Harrington, K. (1997). Parental training for incarcerated fathers: Effects on attitudes, self-esteem, and children’s self perceptions. Journal of Social Psychology, 137 (5), 588-593. doi: 10.1080/00224549709595480
  • Haskins, A. (2014) Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement. Sociological Science1: 141-158. 
  • Landreth, G. L., & Lobaugh, A. F. (1998). Filial therapy with incarcerated fathers: Effects on parental acceptance of child, parental stress, and child adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 157–165.
  • Lewis, C. E., Garfinkel, I., & Gao, Q. (2007). Incarceration and unwed fathers in fragile families. Journal of Sociological and Social Welfare, 34, 77-94.
  • Murray, J., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Parental imprisonment: Effects on boys’ antisocial behaviour and delinquency through the life course. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1269-1278.
  • Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, H. R., Kramer, T. L., & Robbins, J. R. (2002). Parental incarceration among youth receiving mental health services.Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(4), 385-399.
  • Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira, Amanda Geller, and Irwin Garfinkel. 2011. “The Effect of Paternal Incarceration on Material Hardship.” Social Service Review 85:447-473.
  • Swisher, Raymond R., and Maureen R. Waller. 2008. “Confining Fatherhood: Incarceration and Paternal Involvement Among Nonresident White, African American, and Latino Fathers.” Journal of Family Issues 29:1067-1088.
  • Wilbur, M. B., Marani, J. E., Appugliese, D., Woods, R., Siegel, J. A., Cabral, H. J., & Frank, D. A.(2007). Socioemotional effects of fathers’ incarceration on low-income, urban, school-aged children. Pediatrics, 120, 678-685.
  • Wildeman, Christopher. 2010. “Paternal Incarceration and Children’s Physically Aggressive Behaviors: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study.” Social Forces 89:285-309.

Child Welfare

  • Andersen, S. H., & Wildeman, C. (2014). The Effect of Paternal Incarceration on Children’s Risk of Foster Care Placement.Social Forces, sou027.
  • Ehrensaft, M., Khashu, A., Ross, T., & Wamsley, M. (2003). Patterns of criminal conviction and incarceration among mothers of children in foster care in New York City. New York: Vera Institute of Justice and New York City Administration for Children’s Services.
  • Hayward, R. A., & DePanfilis, D. (2007). Foster children with an incarcerated parent: Predictors of reunification.Children and Youth Services Review,29(1320-1334).
  • Johnson, E. I., & Waldfogel, J. (2008). Trends in parental incarceration and implications for child welfare. CW360.
  • Moses, M. C. (2006). Does parental incarceration increase a child’s risk for foster care placement?[Electronic Version]. National Institute of Justice Journal retrieved on November 9, 2006.
  • Phillips, S. D. (2008). Parents’ involvement in the criminal justice system and children’s entry into foster care: Findings and implications from two studies. CW 360.
  • Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, H. R., & Barth, R. P. (2004). Parental arrest and children in child welfare services agencies. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,2, 174-186.
  • Phillips, S. D., Leathers, S. J., & Erkanli, A. (2009). Children of probationers in the child welfare system. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 18, 183-191.
  • Ross, T., & Khashu, A. W. M. (2004). Hard data on hard times: An empirical analysis of maternal incarceration, foster care, and visitation. New York: Vera Institute of Justice and New York City Administration for Children’s Services.
  • Sugie, N. F. (2012). Punishment and welfare: Paternal incarceration and families’ receipt of public assistance.Social Forces, sos055.
  • Swann, C. A., & Sheran Sylvester, M. (2006). The foster care crisis: What caused caseloads to grow?Demography, 43, 309-335.

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