Children

  • Berger, Lawrence M., et al. “Families at the Intersection of the Criminal Justice and Child Protective Services Systems.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 665, no. 1, May 2016, pp. 171–194, doi:10.1177/0002716216633058.
  • Bocknek, E. L., Sanderson, J., &Britner, P. A. (2008). Ambiguous loss and posttraumatic stress in school-age children of prisoners. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 323-333. 
  • Boswell, G. (2002). Imprisoned fathers: The children’s view. The Howard Journal, 41(1), 14-26.
  • Dallaire, D. H., Ciccone, A., & Wilson, L. C. (2010). Teachers’ experiences with and expectations of children with incarcerated parents.Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology31(4), 281-290.
  • Geller, Amanda, et al. “Parental Incarceration and Child Well-Being: Implications for Urban Families.” Social Science Quarterly, vol. 90, no. 5, 2009, pp. 1186–1202. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/42940627.
  • Geller, A., Jaeger, K., Pace, G., T. (2016). Surveys, Records, and the Study of Incarceration in Families, 22-43. 
  • Glaze, L. E., &Maruschak, L. M. (2008). Parents in prison and their minor children(NCJ 222984). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
  • Haskins, A. (2014). Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement. Sociological Science, 1, pp.141-158.

  • Meek, R. (2008). Experiences of younger siblings of young men in prison. Children & Society, 22, 265-277.
  • Nesmith, A., & Ruhland, E. (2008). Children of incarcerated parents: Challenges and resiliency, in their own words. Children and Youth Services Review, 30(10), 1119-1130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2008.02.006

  • Lopez, C., & Bhat, C.S. (2007). Supporting students with incarcerated parents in schools: A group intervention. Journal of Specialists in Group Work, 32, 139-153. doi: 10.1080/01933920701227125
  •  Lotze, G. M., Ravindran, N., & Myers, B. J. (2010). Moral emotions, emotion self-regulation, callous-unemotional traits, and problem behavior in children of incarcerated mothers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(6), 702-713. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-010-9358-7

  • Luther, K. (2016). Stigma Management among Children of Incarcerated Parents. Journal of Deviant Behavior, 37: 1264-1275. 
  • Luther, K. (2015), Examining Social Support Among Adult Children of Incarcerated Parents. Fam Relations, 64: 505–518.
  • Miller, K. M., Eddy, J. M., Borja, S & Lazzari, S. R., (2017). Variations in the Life of Incarcerated Parents by Race and Ethnicity: Implications for Service Provision, Smith College studies in Social Work, 87:1,59-77, DOI:10.1080/00377317.2017.1248198 
  • Miller, Keva M. (2006). The Impact of Parental Incarceration on Children: An Emerging Need for Effective Interventions. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 23(4), 472-486.
  • Murray, J., & Murray L. (2010). Parental incarceration, attachment, and child psychopathology. Attachment and Human Development, 12, 289-309. doi: 10.1080/14751790903416889
  • Phillips, S. D., & Gates, T. (2011). A conceptual framework for understanding the stigmatization of children of incarcerated parents.Journal of Child and Family Studies20(3), 286-294.
  • Poehlmann, J., Dallaire, D., Loper, A. B., & Shear, L. D. (2010). Children’s contact with their incarcerated parents: research findings and recommendations.American Psychologist65(6), 575.
  •  Poehlmann, Julie et al. “Children’s contact with their incarcerated parents: research findings and recommendations.” The American psychologist vol. 65,6 (2010): 575-98. doi:10.1037/a0020279
  • Roberts, Y. H., Snyder, F. J., Kaufman, J. S., Finley, M. K., Griffin, A., Anderson, J., Crusto, C. A. (2013). Children Exposed to the Arrest of a Family Member: Associations with Mental Health. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(2), 214-224. doi:10.1007/s10826-013-9717-2
  •  Siegel, J. A. (2011). Disrupted childhoods: Children of women in prison. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press.
  • Turney K. & Wilderman, C. (2017) Child Abuse & Neglect: Adverse childhood experiences among children placed in and adopted from foster care: Evidence from a nationally representative survey, 64 117-129. 
  • Wakefield, S.,Lee, H., & Wildeman, C., (2016). Tough on Crime, Tough on Families? Criminal Justice and Family Life in America. 8-21
  • Wakefield, S., Wildeman, C., &Wildeman, C. J. (2014). Children of the prison boom: mass incarceration and the future of American inequality. New York: Oxford University Press
  • Wakefield, S., &Wildeman, C. (2011). Mass imprisonment and racial disparities in childhood behavioral problems.Criminology & Public Policy,10(3), 793-817.
  • Wildeman, C. J. (2009). Parental imprisonment, the prison boom, and the concentration of childhood disadvantage. Demography, 46, 265-280.
  • Wildeman, C. (2010). Paternal incarceration and children’s physically aggressive behaviors: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study.Social Forces89(1), 285-309.
  • Wildeman, Christopher, and Sara Wakefield. 2014. “The Long Arm of the Law: The Concentration of Incarceration in Families in the Era of Mass Incarceration.” Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice 17:367-389.

Families

  • Arditti, J. A., Lambert-Shute, J., &Joest, K. (2003). Saturday morning at the jail: Implications of incarceration for families and children. Family Relations, 52(3), 195-204.
  • Arditti, J.A. (2003). Locked doors and glass walls. Family visiting at a local jail. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 8, 115-138. doi: 10.1080/15325020305864
  • Christian, J., Mellow, J., & Thomas, S. (2006). Social and economic implications of family connections to prisoners. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34(4), 443-452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2006.05.010
  • Glaze, L. E., & Maruschak, L. M. (2008). Parents in prison and their minor children(NCJ 222984). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Revised 3/30/2010.
  • Geller, A., Garfinkel, I., & Western, B. (2011). Paternal incarceration and support for children in fragile families.Demography48(1), 25-47.
  •  Addams, J., Hairston, C.F., Rollin, J., & Jo, H. (2004). Family Connections During Imprisonment and Prisoners’ Community Reentry.
  • Kazura, K. (2001). Family programming for incarcerated parents: A needs assessment among inmates. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 32(4), 67-83.
  • Markariev, D., & Shaver, P.R. (2010). Attachment, parental incarceration and possibilities for intervention: An overview. Attachment and Human Development, 12, 311-331. doi: 10.1080/1475790903416939
  • Murray, J. (2007). The cycle of punishment: Social exclusion of prisoners and their children. Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 7(1), 55-81.
  • Murray, Joseph and David P. Farrington. 2005. “Parental Imprisonment: Effects on Boys’ Antisocial Behaviour and Delinquency Through the Life-Course.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46:1269-1278.
  •  Mumola, C. J. (2000). Incarcerated parents and their children(NCJ-182335). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
  • Phillips, S. D., Erkanli, A., Costello, E. J., &Angold, A. (2007). Differences among children whose mothers have a history of arrest. Women & Criminal Justice, 17(2/3), 45-63.
  • Phillips, Susan & Erkanli, Alaattin. (2008). Differences in patterns of maternal arrest and the parent, family, and child problems encountered in working with families. Children and Youth Services Review. 30. 157-172. 10.1016/j.childyouth.2007.09.003.
  • PHILLIPS, S. D., ERKANLI, A. , KEELER, G. P., COSTELLO, E. J. and ANGOLD, A. (2006), DISENTANGLING THE RISKS: PARENT CRIMINAL JUSTICE INVOLVEMENT AND CHILDREN’S EXPOSURE TO FAMILY RISKS. Criminology & Public Policy, 5: 677-702. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9133.2006.00404.x
  • Roettger, M. E., Swisher, R. R., Kuhl, D. C., & Chavez, J. (2011). Paternal incarceration and trajectories of marijuana and other illegal drug use from adolescence into young adulthood: evidence from longitudinal panels of males and females in the United States. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 106(1), 121–132. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03110.x
  • Roxburgh, S., & Fitch, C. (2014). Parental Status, Child Contact, and Well-Being Among Incarcerated Men and Women.Journal Of Family Issues35(10), 1394. doi:10.1177/0192513X13498593
  • Shlafer, R. J., & Poehlmann, J. (2010). Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration. Attachment & human development, 12(4), 395–415. doi:10.1080/14616730903417052
  •   Smith, A., Krisman, K., Strozier, A. L., & Marley, M. A. (2004). Breaking through the Bars: Exploring the Experiences of Addicted Incarcerated Parents Whose Children Are Cared for by Relatives. Families in Society, 85(2), 187–195. https://doi.org/10.1606/1044-3894.329
  • Turney, K. , Schnittker, J. and Wildeman, C. (2012), Those They Leave Behind: Paternal Incarceration and Maternal Instrumental Support. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74: 1149-1165. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.00998.x
  • Turney, Kristin, and Christopher Wildeman. 2013. “Redefining Relationships: Explaining The Countervailing Consequences of Paternal Incarceration for Parenting.” American Sociological Review 78:949-979.
  • Sara Wakefield, Accentuating The Positive Or Eliminating The Negative? Paternal Incarceration And Caregiver-Child Relationship Quality, 104 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 905 (2015). https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/jclc/vol104/iss4/6
  • Wildeman, Christopher. 2012. “Imprisonment and Infant Mortality.” Social Problems 59:228-257.

Mothers

  • Cecil, D.K., McHale, J., Strozier, A., &Pietsch, J. (2008). Female inmates, family caregivers, and young children’s adjustment: A research agenda and implications for corrections programming. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36, 513-521. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2008.09.002
  • Geller, A. and Franklin, A. W. (2014), Paternal Incarceration and the Housing Security of Urban Mothers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76: 411–427. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12098
  • Greene, S., Haney, C., &Hurator, A. (2000). Cycles of pain: Risk factors in the lives of incarcerated mothers and their children. The Prison Journal, 80(1), 3-23.
  • Hanlon, T. E., Blatchley, R. J., Bennett-Sears, T., Grady, K. E. O., Rose, M., &Callaman, J. M. (2005). Vulnerability of children of incarcerated addict mothers: Implications for preventive intervention. Child and Youth Services Review, 27, 67-84.
  • Poehlmann, J., Shlafer, R. J., Maes, E., &Hanneman, A. (2008). Factors associated with young children’s opportunities for maintain family relationships during maternal incarceration. Family Relations, 57, 267- 280. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00499.x
  • Poehlmann, J. (2005). Representations of attachment relationships in children of incarcerated mothers. Child Development, 76, 679-696.
  • Poehlmann, J. (2005). Incarcerated mothers’ contact with children, perceived family relationships, and depressive symptoms.Journal of Family Psychology,19(3), 350.
  • Poehlmann, J., Eddy, J. M., Dallaire, D. H., Zeman, J. L., Myers, B. J., Mackintosh, V., …&Burraston, B. (2013). Relationship processes and resilience in children with incarcerated parents.Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development78(3), vii-viii.
  • Shamai, M., &Kochal, R.-B. (2008). Motherhood starts in prison: The experience of motherhood among women in prison. Family Process, 47(3), 323-340.
  • Shlafer, R. J., & Poehlmann, J., &Donelan- Mccall, N. (2011). Maternal jail time, conviction, and arrest as predictors of children’s 15 year antisocial outcomes in the context of a nurse home visiting program. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology,41, 38-52, doi: 10.1080/15374416.2012.632345
  • Smith, A., Krisman, K., Strozier, A. L., & Marley, M. A. (2004). Breaking through the bars: Exploring the experiences of addicted incarcerated parents whose children are cared for by relatives. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 85, 187-195.
  • Young, D. S., & Smith, C. J. (2000). When moms are incarcerated: The needs of children, mothers, and caregivers. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 81(2), 130-141.
  • Wildeman, C. J. (2009). Parental imprisonment, the prison boom, and the concentration of childhood disadvantage. Demography, 46, 265-280.
  • Wildeman, C., Schnittker, J., &Turney, K. (2012). Despair by association? The mental health of mothers with children by recently incarcerated fathers. American Sociological Review77(2), 216-243.

Fathers

  • Boswell, G. (2002). Imprisoned fathers: The children’s view. The Howard Journal, 41(1), 14-26.
  • Chui, W. H. (2016). Association Between Caregiver Stress and Behavioral Problems in the Children of Incarcerated Fathers in Hong Kong. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 20(10), 2074-2083. doi:10.1007/s10995-016-2034-9
  • Mendez, G. A. (2000). Incarcerated African American men and their children: A case study. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 569, 86-101.
  • Nurse, A. M. (2002). Fatherhood arrested: Parenting from within the juvenile justice system: Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Roettger, Michael E. and Raymond R. Swisher. 2011. “Associations of Fathers’ History of Incarceration with Sons’ Delinquency and Arrest among Black, White, and Hispanic Males in the United States.” Criminology 49:1109-1147.
  • O’Connell, W. P. (2005). Families of incarcerated male alcohol and drug offenders: A multisystemic study. Journal of Family Social Work, 2(2), 1-23.
  • Shannon, S. K. S., & Abrams, L. S. (2007). Juvenile offenders as fathers: Perceptions of fatherhood, crime, and becoming and adult. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 88, 183-191.

Child Welfare

  • Phillips, S.D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, R. H., & Barth, R. P. (2004). Parent arrest and children involved with child welfare services agencies. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74 (2), 174-186. Doi: 10.1037/.74.2.174
  • Phillips, S. D., & Dettlaff, A. J. (2007). More than parents in prison: The broader overlap between the criminal justice and child welfare systems. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 3, 3-13.

Seminal Works 

  • Bloom, B., & Steinhart, D. (1993). Why punish the children? A reappraisal of the children of incarcerated mothers in America. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency
  • Barnhill, S. (1996). Three generations at risk: Imprisoned women, their children, and grandmother caregivers.Generations, 20, 39-41
  • Schneller, D. P. (1975). Prisoners’ families: A study of some social and psychological
  • Hairston, C. F. (1989). Men in prison: Family characteristics and family views. Journal of Offender Counseling, Rehabilitation, & Services, 14, 23-30
  • Hairston, C. F. (1998). The forgotten parent: Understanding the forces that influence incarcerated fathers’ relationships with their children. Child Welfare, 77(5), 617-639
  • Lanier, C. S. (1991). Dimensions of father-child interaction in a New York state prison population. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation,16, 27-42
  • Sack, W. H., Seidler, J., & Thomas, S. (1996). The children of imprisoned parents: A psychosocial exploration. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 46, 618-628