Children

  • Berger, L. M., Cancian, M., Cuesta, L., & Noyes, J. L., (2016). Families at the Intersection of the Criminal Justice Child Protective Services Systems, 231-240. 
  • Bocknek, E. L., Sanderson, J., &Britner, P. A. (2008). Ambiguous loss and posttraumatic stress in school-age children of prisoners. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 323-333. 
  • Bloom, B., & Steinhart, D. (1993). Why punish the children? A reappraisal of the children of incarcerated mothers in America. San Francisco: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
  • Boswell, G. (2002). Imprisoned fathers: The children’s view. The Howard Journal, 41(1), 14-26.
  • Dallaire, D. H., Ciccone, A., & Wilson, L. C. (2010). Teachers’ experiences with and expectations of children with incarcerated parents.Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology31(4), 281-290.
  • Gabel, S. (1992). Behavioral problems in sons of incarcerated or otherwise absent father: The issue of separation. Family Process, 31, 303-314.
  • Gabel, S., &Shindeldecker, R. (1993). Characteristics of children whose parents have been incarcerated. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44, 656-660.
  • Geller, A., Garfinkel, I., Cooper, C., &Mincy, R. (2008). Parental incarceration and child wellbeing: Implications for urban families. Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation.
  • Geller, A., Jaeger, K., Pace, G., T. (2016). Surveys, Records, and the Study of Incarceration in Families, 22-43. 
  • Glaze, L. E., &Maruschak, L. M. (2008). Parents in prison and their minor children(NCJ 222984). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
  • Haskins, Anna R. (2014). Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement. Sociological Science, 1141-158.
  • McGowan, B., & Blumenthal, K. (1978). Why punish the children? New York: Children’s Defense Fund.
  • Meek, R. (2008). Experiences of younger siblings of young men in prison. Children & Society, 22, 265-277.
  • Nesmith, A., &Ruhland, E. (2008). Children of incarcerated parents: Challenges and resiliency, in their own words. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 1119-1130.
  • Lopez, C., & Bhat, C.S. (2007). Supporting students with incarcerated parents in schools: A group intervention. Journal of Specialists in Group Work, 32, 139-153. doi: 10.1080/01933920701227125
  • Lotze, G. M., Ravidran, N., & Myers, B. J. (2010). Moral emotions, emotion self-regulation callous-unemotional traits and problem behavior in children of incarcerated mothers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 702-713. doi: 10.1007/s10826-010-9358-7
  • Luther, K. (2016). Stigma Management among Children of Incarcerated Parents. Journal of Deviant Behavior, 37: 1264-1275. 
  • Luther, K. (2015), Examining Social Support Among Adult Children of Incarcerated Parents. Fam Relations, 64: 505–518.
  • Miller, K. M., Eddy, J. M., Borja, S & Lazzari, S. R., (2017). Variations in the Life of Incarcerated Parents by Race and Ethnicity: Implications for Service Provision, Smith College studies in Social Work, 87:1,59-77, DOI:10.1080/00377317.2017.1248198 
  • Miller, Keva M. (2006). The Impact of Parental Incarceration on Children: An Emerging Need for Effective Interventions. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 23(4), 472-486.
  • Murray, J., & Murray L. (2010). Parental incarceration, attachment, and child psychopathology. Attachment and Human Development, 12, 289-309. doi: 10.1080/14751790903416889
  • Phillips, S. D., & Gates, T. (2011). A conceptual framework for understanding the stigmatization of children of incarcerated parents.Journal of Child and Family Studies20(3), 286-294.
  • Poehlmann, J., Dallaire, D., Loper, A. B., & Shear, L. D. (2010). Children’s contact with their incarcerated parents: research findings and recommendations.American Psychologist65(6), 575.
  • Poehlmann, J. (2010). Attachment in infants and children of incarcerated parents. In J. M. Eddy & J. Poehlmann (Eds.), Children of incarcerated parents: A handbook for researchers and practitioners (pp. 75-100). Washington DC: Urban Institute Press.
  • Poehlmann, J., Dallaire, D., Loper, A. B., & Shear, L. D. (2010). Children’s contact with their incarcerated parents: Research findings and recommendations. American Psychologist, 65, 575-598. Doi: 10.1037/a0020279
  • Roberts, Y. H., Snyder, F. J., Kaufman, J. S., Finley, M. K., Griffin, A., Anderson, J., Crusto, C. A. (2013). Children Exposed to the Arrest of a Family Member: Associations with Mental Health. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(2), 214-224. doi:10.1007/s10826-013-9717-2
  • Siegel, J.( 2011). Disrupted Childhoods: Children of Women in Prison. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press.
  • Turney K. & Wilderman, C. (2017) Child Abuse & Neglect: Adverse childhood experiences among children placed in and adopted from foster care: Evidence from a nationally representative survey, 64 117-129. 
  • Wakefield, S.,Lee, H., & Wildeman, C., (2016). Tough on Crime, Tough on Families? Criminal Justice and Family Life in America. 8-21
  • Wakefield, S., Wildeman, C., &Wildeman, C. J. (2014). Children of the prison boom: mass incarceration and the future of American inequality. New York: Oxford University Press
  • Wakefield, S., &Wildeman, C. (2011). Mass imprisonment and racial disparities in childhood behavioral problems.Criminology & Public Policy,10(3), 793-817.
  • Wildeman, C. J. (2009). Parental imprisonment, the prison boom, and the concentration of childhood disadvantage. Demography, 46, 265-280.
  • Wildeman, C. (2010). Paternal incarceration and children’s physically aggressive behaviors: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study.Social Forces89(1), 285-309.
  • Wildeman, Christopher, and Sara Wakefield. 2014. “The Long Arm of the Law: The Concentration of Incarceration in Families in the Era of Mass Incarceration.” Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice 17:367-389.

Families

  • Arditti, J. A., Lambert-Shute, J., &Joest, K. (2003). Saturday morning at the jail: Implications of incarceration for families and children. Family Relations, 52(3), 195-204.
  • Arditti, J.A. (2003). Locked doors and glass walls. Family visiting at a local jail. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 8, 115-138. doi: 10.1080/15325020305864
  • Christian, J. (2005). Riding the bus: Barriers to prison visitation and family management strategies. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice,21, 31– 48.doi:10.1177/1043986204271618
  • Christian, J., Mellow, J., & Thomas, S. (2006). Social and economic implications of family connections to prisoners. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34, 443– 452.
  • doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2006.05.010
  • Glaze, L. E., & Maruschak, L. M. (2008). Parents in prison and their minor children(NCJ 222984). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Revised 3/30/2010.
  • Geller, A., Garfinkel, I., & Western, B. (2011). Paternal incarceration and support for children in fragile families.Demography48(1), 25-47.
  • Hairston, C. F., Rollin, J., & Jo, H. (2004). Family connections during imprisonment and prisoners’ community re-entry. Chicago: Jane Addams College of Social Work, Jane Addams Center for Social Policy and Research.
  • Kazura, K. (2001). Family programming for incarcerated parents: A needs assessment among inmates. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 32(4), 67-83.
  • Kemper, K. J. (1993). Parents in jail. Pediatrics, 92, 261-264.
  • Koban, L. A. (1983). Parents in prison: A comparative analysis of the effects of incarceration on the families of men and women. Research in Law, Deviance and Social Control, 5, 171-183.
  • Lewis, D. O., Shanok, S. S., & Balla, D. A. (1979). Parental criminality and medical histories of delinquent children. American Journal of Psychiatry,136, 288-292.
  • Lowenstein, A. (1986). Temporary single parenthood: The case of prisoners’ families. Family Relations, 36, 79-85.
  • Markariev, D., & Shaver, P.R. (2010). Attachment, parental incarceration and possibilities for intervention: An overview. Attachment and Human Development, 12, 311-331. doi: 10.1080/1475790903416939
  • Murray, J. (2007). The cycle of punishment: Social exclusion of prisoners and their children. Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 7(1), 55-81.
  • Murray, Joseph and David P. Farrington. 2005. “Parental Imprisonment: Effects on Boys’ Antisocial Behaviour and Delinquency Through the Life-Course.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46:1269-1278.
  • Mumola, C. J. (2000). Incarcerated parents and their children(NCJ-182335). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
  • Phillips, S. D., Erkanli, A., Costello, E. J., &Angold, A. (2007). Differences among children whose mothers have a history of arrest. Women & Criminal Justice, 17(2/3), 45-63.
  • Phillips, S. D., &Erkanli, A. (2008). Differences in patterns of maternal arrest and the parent, family, and child problems encountered in working with families Children & and Youth Services Review, 30, 157-172.
  • Phillips, S. D., Erkanli, A., Costello, E. J., &Angold, A. (2006). Disentangling the risks: Parent criminal justice involvement and children’s exposure to family risks. Criminology and Public Policy, 5, 677-702.
  • Roettger, Michael E., Raymond R. Swisher, Danielle C. Kuhl, and Jorge Chavez. 2011. “Paternal Incarceration and Trajectories of Marijuana and Other Illegal Drug Use form Adolescence into Young Adulthood: Evidence from Longitudinal Panels of Males and Females in the United States.” Addiction 106:121-132.
  • Roxburgh, S., & Fitch, C. (2014). Parental Status, Child Contact, and Well-Being Among Incarcerated Men and Women.Journal Of Family Issues35(10), 1394. doi:10.1177/0192513X13498593
  • Sacks, J. (1938). The social and economic adjustments of the families of a selected group of imprisoned felons. Master’s thesis, American Catholic University, School of Social Work.
  • Shlafer, R. J., &Poehlmann, J., (2010). Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration. Attachment and Human Development, 12, 395-415. doi: 10.1080/14616730903417052
  • Smith, B. E., &Elstein, S. G. (1994). Children on hold: Improving the response to children whose parents are arrested and incarcerated. Washington DC: American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law.
  • Smith, A., Krisman, K., Strozier, A. L., & Marley, M. A. (2004). Breaking through the bars: Exploring the experiences of addicted incarcerated parents whose children are cared for by relatives. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 85, 187-195.
  • Turney, Kristin, Jason Schnittker, and Christopher Wildeman. 2012. “Those They Leave Behind: Paternal Incarceration and Maternal Instrumental Support.” Journal of Marriage and Family 74:1149-1165.
  • Turney, Kristin, and Christopher Wildeman. 2013. “Redefining Relationships: Explaining The Countervailing Consequences of Paternal Incarceration for Parenting.” American Sociological Review 78:949-979.
  • Sara Wakefield, Accentuating The Positive Or Eliminating The Negative? Paternal Incarceration And Caregiver-Child Relationship Quality, 104 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 905 (2015). https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/jclc/vol104/iss4/6
  • Wildeman, Christopher. 2012. “Imprisonment and Infant Mortality.” Social Problems 59:228-257.

Mothers

  • Barnhill, S. (1996). Three generations at risk: Imprisoned women, their children, and grandmother caregivers.Generations, 20, 39-41.
  • Cecil, D.K., McHale, J., Strozier, A., &Pietsch, J. (2008). Female inmates, family caregivers, and young children’s adjustment: A research agenda and implications for corrections programming. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36, 513-521. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2008.09.002
  • Geller, A. and Franklin, A. W. (2014), Paternal Incarceration and the Housing Security of Urban Mothers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76: 411–427. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12098
  • Top of Form
  • Greene, S., Haney, C., &Hurator, A. (2000). Cycles of pain: Risk factors in the lives of incarcerated mothers and their children. The Prison Journal, 80(1), 3-23.
  • Hanlon, T. E., Blatchley, R. J., Bennett-Sears, T., Grady, K. E. O., Rose, M., &Callaman, J. M. (2005). Vulnerability of children of incarcerated addict mothers: Implications for preventive intervention. Child and Youth Services Review, 27, 67-84.
  • Henriques, Z. W. (1982). Imprisoned mothers and their children. Washington, DC: University Press of America.
  • Hungford, G. (1993). The children of inmate mothers in Ohio: Executive summary. West Virginia University of Social Work.
  • Poehlmann, J., Shlafer, R. J., Maes, E., &Hanneman, A. (2008). Factors associated with young children’s opportunities for maintain family relationships during maternal incarceration. Family Relations, 57, 267- 280. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00499.x
  • Poehlmann, J. (2005). Representations of attachment relationships in children of incarcerated mothers. Child Development, 76, 679-696.
  • Poehlmann, J. (2005). Incarcerated mothers’ contact with children, perceived family relationships, and depressive symptoms.Journal of Family Psychology,19(3), 350.
  • Poehlmann, J., Eddy, J. M., Dallaire, D. H., Zeman, J. L., Myers, B. J., Mackintosh, V., …&Burraston, B. (2013). Relationship processes and resilience in children with incarcerated parents.Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development78(3), vii-viii.
  • Schneller, D. P. (1975). Prisoners’ families: A study of some social and psychological effects of incarceration on the families of Negro prisoners. Criminology, 12, 402-412.
  • Shamai, M., &Kochal, R.-B. (2008). Motherhood starts in prison: The experience of motherhood among women in prison. Family Process, 47(3), 323-340.
  • Shlafer, R. J., & Poehlmann, J., &Donelan- Mccall, N. (2011). Maternal jail time, conviction, and arrest as predictors of children’s 15 year antisocial outcomes in the context of a nurse home visiting program. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology,41, 38-52, doi: 10.1080/15374416.2012.632345
  • Smith, A., Krisman, K., Strozier, A. L., & Marley, M. A. (2004). Breaking through the bars: Exploring the experiences of addicted incarcerated parents whose children are cared for by relatives. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 85, 187-195.
  • Young, D. S., & Smith, C. J. (2000). When moms are incarcerated: The needs of children, mothers, and caregivers. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 81(2), 130-141.
  • Wildeman, C. J. (2009). Parental imprisonment, the prison boom, and the concentration of childhood disadvantage. Demography, 46, 265-280.
  • Wildeman, C., Schnittker, J., &Turney, K. (2012). Despair by association? The mental health of mothers with children by recently incarcerated fathers. American Sociological Review77(2), 216-243.
  • Zalba, S. (1964). Women prisoners and their families.Sacramento: CA: Department of Social Welfare and Department of Corrections.

Fathers

  • Boswell, G. (2002). Imprisoned fathers: The children’s view. The Howard Journal, 41(1), 14-26.
  • Chui, W. H. (2016). Association Between Caregiver Stress and Behavioral Problems in the Children of Incarcerated Fathers in Hong Kong. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 20(10), 2074-2083. doi:10.1007/s10995-016-2034-9
  • Hairston, C. F. (1989). Men in prison: Family characteristics and family views. Journal of Offender Counseling, Rehabilitation, & Services, 14, 23-30.
  • Hairston, C. F. (1998). The forgotten parent: Understanding the forces that influence incarcerated fathers’ relationships with their children. Child Welfare, 77(5), 617-639.
  • Lanier, C. S. (1991). Dimensions of father-child interaction in a New York state prison population. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation,16, 27-42.
  • Mendez, G. A. (2000). Incarcerated African American men and their children: A case study. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 569, 86-101.
  • Moerck, E. L. (1973). Like father like son: Imprisonment and the psychological adjustment of sons. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2, 303-312.
  • Nurse, A. M. (2002). Fatherhood arrested: Parenting from within the juvenile justice system: Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Roettger, Michael E. and Raymond R. Swisher. 2011. “Associations of Fathers’ History of Incarceration with Sons’ Delinquency and Arrest among Black, White, and Hispanic Males in the United States.” Criminology 49:1109-1147.
  • O’Connell, W. P. (2005). Families of incarcerated male alcohol and drug offenders: A multisystemic study. Journal of Family Social Work, 2(2), 1-23.
  • Sack, W. H. (1977). Children of imprisoned fathers. Psychiatry, 40, 163-174.
  • Sack, W. H., Seidler, J., & Thomas, S. (1996). The children of imprisoned parents: A psychosocial exploration. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 46, 618-628.
  • Sacks, J. (1938). The social and economic adjustments of the families of a selected group of imprisoned felons. Master’s thesis, American Catholic University, School of Social Work.
  • Shannon, S. K. S., & Abrams, L. S. (2007). Juvenile offenders as fathers: Perceptions of fatherhood, crime, and becoming and adult. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 88, 183-191.

Child Welfare

  • Phillips, S.D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, R. H., & Barth, R. P. (2004). Parent arrest and children involved with child welfare services agencies. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74 (2), 174-186. Doi: 10.1037/.74.2.174
  • Phillips, S. D., & Dettlaff, A. J. (2007). More than parents in prison: The broader overlap between the criminal justice and child welfare systems. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 3, 3-13.