Children

  • Andersen, L. H., (2016). How Children’s Educational Outcomes and Criminality Vary by Duration and Frequency of Patrnal Incarceration, 149-170. 
  • Andersen, S. H., (2016). Drinking Alone? The Effect of an Alcohool Treatmenr Program on Relationship Stability for Convicted Drunk Drivers in Denmark, 46-62. 
  • Apel, R. (2016). The Effects of Jail and Prison Confinement an Cohabitation and Marriage, 103-126. 
  • Bijleveld, C. C. J. H., & Farrington, D.P. (2009). The importance of studies of intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviour. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 77-79.
  • Bijleveld, C. C. J. H., & Wijkman, M. (2009). Intergenerational continuity in convictions: A five-generation study.Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 142-155.
  • Cho, R.M. (2009). The impact of maternal imprisonment on children’s probability of grade retention: Results from Chicago public schools. Journal of Urban Economics, 65, 11-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jue.2008.09.004
  • Comfort, M. (2016). “A Twenty-Hour-a-Day Job”, The Impact of Frequent Low-Level Criminal Justice Involvement on Family Life, 63-79. 
  • Conway, J., & Keays, A. (2015, March). Children with Incarcerated Parents: A Quantitative Evaluation of Mentoring and Home-Based Counseling and Case Management Services. Evaluation of Mentoring and Counseling/Case Management for CIP
  • Dallaire, D., (2007a) Children with incarcerated mothers: Developmental outcomes, special challenges and recommendations. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 15-24. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2006.10.003
  • Dallaire, D.H., & Wilson, L. (2010). The impact of exposure to parental criminal activity, arrest, and sentencing on children’s academic competence and externalizing behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 404-418 doi:: 10.1007/s10826-009-9311-9
  • Dannerbeck, A. M. (2005). Differences in parenting attributes, experiences, and behavior of delinquent youth with and without a parental history of incarceration. Youth Violence & Juvenile Justice,3, 99-213.
  • Dube et al. (2003). Child abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Pediatrics, 111, 564-572.
  • Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-258.
  • Fritsch, T. A., & Burkhead, J. D. (1982). Behavioral reactions of children to parental absence due to imprisonment.Family Relations, 30, 83-88.
  • Glueck, S., & Glueck, E. (1950). Unraveling juvenile delinquency. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Guzder, J., Paris, J., Zelfowitz, P., & Feldman, R. (1999). Psychological risk factors for borderline pathology in school-age children. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 206-212.
  • Guzder, J., Paris, J., Zelfowitz, P., & Feldman, R. (1999). Psychological risk factors for borderline pathology in school-age children. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 206-212.
  • Hagen, K. A., & Myers, B. J. (2003). The effect of secrecy and social support on behavioral problems in children of incarcerated women. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12, 229-242.
  • Hanlon, T.E., Blatchley, R.J., Bennett-Sears, T., O’Grady, K. E., & Callaman, J. M. (2005). Vulnerability of children of incarcerated addict mothers: Implications for preventive intervention. Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 67-84. doi: 101037/0002-9432.75.2.211
  • Hanlon, T.E., Carswell, S. B., & Rose, M. (2007). Research on the caretaking of children of incarcerated parents: Findings ant their service delivery implications. Children and Youth Services Review, 29, 348-362. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2006.09.001
  • Haskins, A. R., & Jacobsen, W.C., (2017). Schools as Surveilling Institutions? Paternal Incarceration, System Avoidance, and Parental Involvement in Schooling. DOI: 10.1177/0003122417709294
  • Haskins, A. R., & Lee, H. (2016). Reexamining Race When Studying the Consequences of Criminal Justice Contact for Families, 224-230. 
  • Johnson, Rucker C. 2009. “Ever-Increasing Levels of Parental Incarceration: The Consequences for Children.” Pp. 177-206 in Do Prisons Make Us Safer? The Benefits and Costs of the Prison Boom, edited by Steven Raphael and Michael A. Stoll. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Johnson, E. I., & Waldfogel, J. (2002). Children of incarcerated parents: Cumulative risk and children’s living arrangement. New York: Columbia University.
  • Johnson, E. I., & Easterling, B. (2012). Understanding unique effects of parental incarceration on children: Challenges, progress, and recommendations.Journal of Marriage and Family,74(2), 342-356.
  • Kampfner, C. J. (1995). Post-traumatic stress reactions of children of imprisoned mothers. In K. Gable & D. Johnston (Eds.), Children of Incarcerated Parents. NY: Lexington Books.
  • Keller, T. E., Catalono, R. F., Haggerty, K. P., & Fleming, C. G. (2002). Parent figure transition and delinquency and drug use among early adolescent children of substance abusers. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 28, 399-427.
  • Kinner, S. A., Alati, R., Najman, J. M., & Williams, G. M. (2007). Do parental arrest and imprisonment lead to child behavior problems and substance use? A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 48(11), 1148-1156.
  • Lageson, S. E., (2016). Found Out and Opting Out. The Consequences of Online Criminal Records for Families, 127-141.
  • Langbehn, D. R., & Cadoet, R. J. (2001). The adult antisocial syndrome with and without antecedent conduct disorder: Comparisons from an adoption study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 42, 272-282.
  • Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). Female juvenile offenders: Defining an early-onset pathway for delinquency. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 13, 439-452.
  • Lee, H., Porter, L. C., & Comfort, M. (2014). Consequences of Family Member Incarceration Impacts on Civic Participation and Perceptions of the Legitimacy and Fairness of Government.The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science651(1), 44-73.
  • Loper, A. B., & Clarke, C. N. (2013). IV. ATTACHMENT REPRESENTATIONS OF IMPRISONED MOTHERS AS RELATED TO CHILD CONTACT AND THE CAREGIVING ALLIANCE: THE MODERATING EFFECT OF CHILDREN’S PLACEMENT WITH MATERNAL GRANDMOTHERS.Monographs Of The Society For Research In Child Development78(3), 41-56. doi:10.1111/mono.12020
  • Mackintosh, V. H., Myers, B. J., & Kennon, S. S. (2006). Children of incarcerated mothers and their caregivers: Factors affecting the quality of their relationship. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(5), 581-596.
  • Murray, J. (2010). Longitudinal research on the effects of parental incarceration on children. In J. M. Eddy & J. Poehlmann (Eds.), Children of incarcerated parents: A handbook for researchers and practitioners (pp. 55-74). Washington DC: Urban Institute Press.
  • Murray, J., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Parental imprisonment: Effects on boys’ antisocial behaviour and delinquency through the life course. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1269-1278.
  • Murray, J., Janson, C., & Farrington, D. P. (2007). Crime in adult offspring of prisoners: A cross-national comparison of two longitudinal samples. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 133-149.
  • Murray, J., & Farrington, D. P. (2008). Parental imprisonment: Long-lasting effects on boys’ internalizing problems through the life course. Development and Psychopathology,20, 279-290.
  • Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, H. R., Kramer, T. L., & Robbins, J. R. (2002). Parental incarceration among youth receiving mental health services. Journal of Child and Family Studies,11(4), 385-399.
  • Phillips, S. D., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G. P., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2006). Disentangling the risks: Parent criminal justice involvement and children’s exposure to family risks. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(4), 677-702.
  • Poehlmann, J., Dallaire, D., Loper, A. B., & Shear, L. D. (2010). Children’s contact with their incarcerated parents: Research findings and recommendations.American Psychologist65(6), 575-598. doi:10.1037/a0020279
  • Robins, L. N. (1978). Sturdy childhood predictors of adult antisocial behaviour: replications from longitudinal studies. Psychological Medicine, 8, 611-622.
  • Rodriguez, N., Smith, H., & Zata, M. (2009). “Youth is enmeshed in a highly dysfunctional family system” Exploring the relationship among dysfunctional families, parental incarceration and juvenile court decision making. Criminology, 47, 177.
  • Roettger, Michael E., and Jason D. Boardman. 2012. Parental Incarceration and Gender-based Risks for Increased Body Mass Index: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 175: 636-644.
  • Shortt, J. W., Eddy, J. M., Sheeber, L., & Davis, B. (2014). Project home: A pilot evaluation of an emotion-focused intervention for mothers reuniting with children after prison.Psychological Services11(1), 1-9. doi:10.1037/a0034323
  • Thornberry, T. P., Freeman-Gallant, A., & Lovegrove, P.J. (2009). Intergenerational linkages in antisocial behaviour. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 80-93.
  • Turney, K. (2017). The Unequal Consequences of Mass Incarceration for Children. DOI: 10.1007/s13524-016-0543-1
  • Turney, Kristin. (2014). Stress Proliferation across Generations? Examining the Relationship between Parental Incarceration and Childhood Health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2014 55: 302, DOI: 10.1177/0022146514544173
  • Turney, Kristin. Forthcoming. “The Intergenerational Consequences of Mass Incarceration: Implications for Children’s Co-residence and Contact with Grandparents.” Social Forces
  • Wakefield, S.& Wildeman C. (2014) Children of the Prison Boom: Mass Incarceration and the Future of American Inequality. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Wakefield, S. & Powell, K. (2016). Distinguishing Petty Offenders from Serious Criminals in the Estimation of Family Life Effects, 195-212. 
  • Wakefield, S. and Wildeman, C. (2011). “Mass Imprisonment and Racial Disparities in Childhood Behavioral Problems.” Criminology & Public Policy 10:793-817.
  • Wildeman, C. (2014). Parental incarceration, child homelessness, and the invisible consequences of mass imprisonment.The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science651(1), 74-96.
  • Wildeman, C., Turney, K., & Yi, Y., (2016) Paternal Incarceration and Family Functioning. Variation across Federal, State, and Local Facilities, 80-97. 

Families

  • Aaron, L., & Dallaire, D.H. (2010). Parental incarceration and multiple risk experiences: Effects on family processes and children’s delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolesence, 39, 1471-1484. Doi: 10.1007/s10964-009-9458-0
  • Aaron, L., & Dallaire, D. H. (2010). Parental incarceration and multiple risk experiences: Effects on family dynamics and children’s delinquency.Journal of youth and adolescence39(12), 1471-1484.
  • Arditti, J.A., Lambert-Shute, J., & Joest, K. (2003) Saturday morning at the jail: Implications of incarceration for families and children. Family Relations, 52, 195-204
  • Arditti, J. A. (2012). Parental incarceration and the family: Psychological and social effects of imprisonment on children, parents, and caregivers. New York: New York University Press.
  • Dallaire, D. H. (2007). Incarcerated mothers and fathers: A comparison of risks for children and families. Family Relations, 56, 440-453.
  • Farrington, D. P., Coid, J.W., & Murray, J. (2009). Family factors in the intergenerational transmission of offending. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19, 109-124.
  • Farrington, D. P., Jolliffe, D., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Kalb, L. M. (2001). The concentration of offenders in families, and family criminality in the prediction of boys’ delinquency. Journal of Adolescence,24, 579-596.
  • Folk, J. B., Nichols, E. B., Dallaire, D. H., & Loper, A. B. (2012). Evaluating the Content and Reception of Messages From Incarcerated Parents to Their Children.American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry (Wiley-Blackwell)82(4), 529. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01179.x
  • Foster, Holly, and John Hagan. 2013. “Maternal and Paternal Imprisonment in the Stress Process.” Social Science Research 42:650-669.
  • Foster, Holly and John Hagan. 2009. “The Mass Incarceration of Parents in America: Issues of Race/Ethnicity, Collateral Damage to Children, and Prisoner Reentry.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 623:179-194.
  • Gjelsvik, A., Dumont, D., Nunn, A. ( 2013) Incarceration of a Household Member and Hispanic Health Disparities: Childhood Exposure and Adult Chronic Disease Risk Behaviors. Center for Disease Control: Preventing Chronic Disease, 10 (1-8).
  • Kinner, S. A., Alati, R., Najman, J. M., & Williams, G. M. (2007). Do parental arrest and imprisonment lead to child behavior problems and substance use? A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 48(11), 1148-1156.
  • LaVigne, N. G., Naser, R. L., Brooks, L. E., & Castro, J. L. (2005).Examining the effect of incarceration and inprison family contact on prisoners’ family relationships. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 21, 314 –355. doi:10.1177/104398620528172
  • Lee, Rosalyn D., Xiangming Fang, and Feijin Luo. 2013. The Impact of Parental Incarceration on the Physical and Mental Health of Young Adults. Pediatrics 131:e1188-e1195.
  • Lopoo, Leonard M., and Bruce Western. 2005. “Incarceration and the Formation and Stability of Marital Unions.” Journal of Marriage and Family 67:721-734.
  • Loukas, A., Fitzgerald, H. E., Zucker, R. A., & von Eye, A. (2001). Parental alcoholism and co-occurring antisocial behavior: Prospective relationships to externalizing behavior problems in their young sons. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 91-106.
  • McCord, J., & McCord, W. (1958). The effects of parental role model of criminality. Journal of Social Issues, 14, 66-75.
  • Modecki, K. L., & Wilson, M. N. (2009). The associations between individual and family level characteristics and discipline styles in incarcerated African American fathers. Journal of Child and Family Studies.
  • Phillips, S. D. (2008). Parents’ involvement in the criminal justice system and children’s entry into foster care: Findings and implications from two studies. CW 360.
  • Phillips, S. D., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G. P., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2006). Disentangling the risks: Parent criminal justice involvement and children’s exposure to family risks. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(4), 677-702.
  • Roxburgh, S., & Fitch, C. (2014). Parental Status, Child Contact, and Well-Being among Incarcerated Men and Women. Journal of Family Issues, 35(10), 1934. doi: 10.117/0192513×13498593
  • Schneller, D. P. (1975). Prisoners’ families: A study of some social and psychological effects of incarceration on the families of Negro prisoners. Criminology, 12, 402-412.
  • Sirpa, S. K. (2002). Familial criminality, familial drug use, and gang membership: Youth criminality, drug use, and gang membership: What are the connections? Journal of Gang Research,9, 11-22.
  • Turney, Kristin (2014). Stress Proliferation across Generations? Examining the Relationship between Parental Incarceration and Childhood HealthJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 2014(55), 302-302. 
  • Turney, Kristin. 2014. “The Consequences of Paternal Incarceration for Maternal Neglect and Harsh Parenting.” Social Forces 92:1607-1636.
  • Turanovic, J. J., Rodriguez, N., & Pratt, T. C. (2012). The Collateral Consequences Of Incarceration Revisited: A Qualitative Analysis Of The Effects On Caregivers Of Children Of Incarcerated Parents*. Criminology, 50(4), 913-959. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2012.00283.x
  • Van De Rakt, M., Nieuwbeerta, P., & Apel, R. (2009). Association of criminal convictions between family members: Effects of siblings, fathers and mothers. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19.

Mothers

  • Bryne, M.W. (2010). Interventions: within prison nurseries. In J. M. Eddy & J. Poehlmann (Eds.), Children of incarcerated parents: A handbook for researchers and practitioners (pp. 161-188). Washington DC: Urban Institute Press.
  • Carlson, J. R. (1998). Evaluating the effectiveness of a live-in nursery within a women’s prison. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 27, 73–85. doi:10.1300/J076v27n01_06
  • Cho, Rosa M. 2009b. “The Impact of Maternal Incarceration on Children’s Educational Achievement: Results from Chicago Public Schools.” Journal of Human Resources 44:772-797.
  • Hagen, K. A., & Myers, B. J. (2003). The effect of secrecy and social support on behavioral problems in children of incarcerated women. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12, 229-242.
  • Hagan, John, and Holly Foster. 2012a. “Children of the American Prison Generation: Student and School Spillover Effects of Incarcerating Mothers.” Law and Society Review 46:37-69.
  • Houck, K. D. F., & Loper, A. B. (2002). The relationship of parentingstress to adjustment among mothers in prison. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 548 –558. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.72.4.548
  • Huebner, B. M., & Gustafson, R. (2007). The effect of maternal incarceration on adult offspring involvement in the criminal justice system. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 283-296.
  • Kampfner, C. J. (1995). Post-traumatic stress reactions of children of imprisoned mothers. In K. Gable & D. Johnston (Eds.), Children of Incarcerated Parents. NY: Lexington Books.
  • Lawrence-Wills, S. (2004). Incarcerated mothers’ reports of their daughters’ antisocial behavior, maternal supervision and mother-daughter relationship. Journal of Family Social Work, 8, 55-73.
  • Mackintosh, V. H., Myers, B. J., & Kennon, S. S. (2006). Children of incarcerated mothers and their caregivers: Factors affecting the quality of their relationship. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(5), 581-596.
  • Poehlmann, J. (2005). Children’s family environments and intellectual outcomes during maternal incarceration.Journal of Marriage and Family, 67 (December), 1275-1285.
  • Poehlmann, J. (2005). Incarcerated mothers’ contact with children, perceived family relationships, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 350-357.
  • Stanton, A. M. (1980). When mothers go to jail. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
  • Turney, Kristin, and Christopher Wildeman.Forthcoming.“Detrimental for Some? The Heterogeneous Effects of Maternal Incarceration on Child Wellbeing.”Criminology and Public Policy.

Fathers

  • Craigie, Terry-Ann. 2011. “The Effect of Paternal Incarceration on Early Child Behavioral Problems: A Racial Comparison.” Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice 9:179199.
  • Geller, Amanda, Carey E. Cooper, Irwin Garfinkel, Ofira Schwartz-Soicher, and Ronald B. Mincy. 2012. “Beyond Absenteeism: Father Incarceration and its Effects on Children’s Development.” Demography 49:49-76.
  • Harrington, K. (1997). Parental training for incarcerated fathers: Effects on attitudes, self-esteem, and children’s self perceptions. Journal of Social Psychology, 137 (5), 588-593. doi: 10.1080/00224549709595480
  • Haskins, A. (2014) Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement. Sociological Science1: 141-158. 
  • Landreth, G. L., & Lobaugh, A. F. (1998). Filial therapy with incarcerated fathers: Effects on parental acceptance of child, parental stress, and child adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 157–165.
  • Lewis, C. E., Garfinkel, I., & Gao, Q. (2007). Incarceration and unwed fathers in fragile families. Journal of Sociological and Social Welfare, 34, 77-94.
  • Murray, J., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Parental imprisonment: Effects on boys’ antisocial behaviour and delinquency through the life course. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 1269-1278.
  • Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, H. R., Kramer, T. L., & Robbins, J. R. (2002). Parental incarceration among youth receiving mental health services.Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(4), 385-399.
  • Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira, Amanda Geller, and Irwin Garfinkel. 2011. “The Effect of Paternal Incarceration on Material Hardship.” Social Service Review 85:447-473.
  • Swisher, Raymond R., and Maureen R. Waller. 2008. “Confining Fatherhood: Incarceration and Paternal Involvement Among Nonresident White, African American, and Latino Fathers.” Journal of Family Issues 29:1067-1088.
  • Wilbur, M. B., Marani, J. E., Appugliese, D., Woods, R., Siegel, J. A., Cabral, H. J., & Frank, D. A.(2007). Socioemotional effects of fathers’ incarceration on low-income, urban, school-aged children. Pediatrics, 120, 678-685.
  • Wildeman, Christopher. 2010. “Paternal Incarceration and Children’s Physically Aggressive Behaviors: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study.” Social Forces 89:285-309.

Child Welfare

  • Andersen, S. H., & Wildeman, C. (2014). The Effect of Paternal Incarceration on Children’s Risk of Foster Care Placement.Social Forces, sou027.
  • Ehrensaft, M., Khashu, A., Ross, T., & Wamsley, M. (2003). Patterns of criminal conviction and incarceration among mothers of children in foster care in New York City. New York: Vera Institute of Justice and New York City Administration for Children’s Services.
  • Hayward, R. A., & DePanfilis, D. (2007). Foster children with an incarcerated parent: Predictors of reunification.Children and Youth Services Review,29(1320-1334).
  • Johnson, E. I., & Waldfogel, J. (2008). Trends in parental incarceration and implications for child welfare. CW360.
  • Moses, M. C. (2006). Does parental incarceration increase a child’s risk for foster care placement?[Electronic Version]. National Institute of Justice Journal retrieved on November 9, 2006.
  • Phillips, S. D. (2008). Parents’ involvement in the criminal justice system and children’s entry into foster care: Findings and implications from two studies. CW 360.
  • Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, H. R., & Barth, R. P. (2004). Parental arrest and children in child welfare services agencies. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,2, 174-186.
  • Phillips, S. D., Leathers, S. J., & Erkanli, A. (2009). Children of probationers in the child welfare system. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 18, 183-191.
  • Ross, T., & Khashu, A. W. M. (2004). Hard data on hard times: An empirical analysis of maternal incarceration, foster care, and visitation. New York: Vera Institute of Justice and New York City Administration for Children’s Services.
  • Sugie, N. F. (2012). Punishment and welfare: Paternal incarceration and families’ receipt of public assistance.Social Forces, sos055.
  • Swann, C. A., & Sheran Sylvester, M. (2006). The foster care crisis: What caused caseloads to grow?Demography, 43, 309-335.